Using our novel surgical model of simultaneous intestinal adaptation "A" and neointestinal regeneration "N" conditions in individual rats to determine feasibility for research and clinical application, we further utilized next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) here in normal control tissue and both conditions ("A" and "N") across time to decipher transcriptome changes in neoregeneration and adaptation of intestinal tissue at weeks 1, 4, and 12. We also performed bioinformatics analyses to identify key growth factors for improving intestinal adaptation and neointestinal regeneration. Our analyses indicate several interesting phenomena. First, Gene Ontology and pathway analyses indicate that cell cycle and DNA replication processes are enhanced in week 1 "A" however, in week 1 "N", many immune-related processes are involved. Second, we found some growth factors upregulated or downregulated especially in week 1 "N" versus "A". Third, based on each condition and time point versus normal control tissue, we found in week 1 "N" BMP2, BMP3, and NTF3 are significantly and specifically downregulated, indicating that the regenerative process may be inhibited in the absence of these growth factors. This study reveals complex growth factor regulation in small neointestinal regeneration and intestinal adaptation and provides potential applications in tissue engineering by introducing key growth factors identified here into the injury site.