Hypoxic preconditioning attenuated in kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus

A. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, T. H. Chiu, J. W. Chi, C. F. Chen, L. T. Ho, A. M.Y. Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The neuroprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning on kainate (KA)-induced neurotoxicity, including apoptosis and necrosis, was investigated in rat hippocampus. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats were subjected to 380 mm Hg in an altitude chamber for 15 h/day for 28 days. Intrahippocampal infusion of KA was performed in chloral hydrate anesthetized rats, which acutely elevated 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid levels in normoxic rats. Seven days after the infusion, KA increased lipid peroxidation in the infused hippocampus and resulted in hippocampal CA3 neuronal loss. A 4-week hypoxic preconditioning attenuated KA-induced elevation in hydroxyl radical formation and lipid peroxidation as well as KA-induced neuronal loss. The effects of hypoxic preconditioning on KA-induced apoptosis and necrosis were investigated further. Two hours after KA infusion, cytosolic cytochrome c content was increased in the infused hippocampus. Twenty-four hours after KA infusion, pyknotic nuclei, cellular shrinkage, and cytoplasmic disintegration, but not TUNEL-positive staining, were observed in the CA3 region of hippocampus. Forty-eight hours after KA infusion, both DNA smear and DNA fragmentation were demonstrated in the infused hippocampus. Furthermore, TUNEL-positive cells, indicative of apoptosis, in the infused hippocampus were detected 72 h after KA infusion. Hypoxic pretreatment significantly reduced necrotic-like events in the KA-infused hippocampus. Moreover, hypoxic preconditioning attenuated apoptosis induced by KA infusion, including elevation in cytosolic cytochrome c content, TUNEL-positive cells, and DNA fragmentation. Our data suggest that hypoxic preconditioning may exert its neuroprotection of KA-induced oxidative injuries via attenuating both apoptosis and necrosis in rat hippocampus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-48
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Neurology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2005


  • 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid
  • Apoptosis
  • Hypoxic preconditioning
  • Kainate
  • Necrosis
  • Oxidative stress


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