Hydrogenated Anatase and Rutile TiO2for Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes

Jagabandhu Patra, Shu Chi Wu, Ing Chi Leu, Chun Chen Yang, Rajendra S. Dhaka, Shigeto Okada, Hsiu Liang Yeh, Chieh Ming Hsieh, Bor Kae Chang*, Jeng Kuei Chang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Defective transition metal oxides prepared via a hydrogenation treatment have attracted growing attention for use as electrode materials of batteries and supercapacitors due to their improved electrochemical properties. In this work, two TiO2 phases, namely, rutile (TiO2-R) and anatase (TiO2-A), and their hydrogenated phases (denoted with the prefix "H") are investigated as anodes for sodium-ion batteries. The charge-discharge properties of both phases can be enhanced via a high-pressure hydrogenation treatment. For example, H-TiO2-A exhibits exceptional high-rate performance (100 mA h g-1 at 10,000 mA g-1 vs 5 mA h g-1 at the same current rate for TiO2-A) and great cycling stability (80% capacity retention after 4500 cycles). The introduction of oxygen vacancies increases the electronic and ionic conductivity of TiO2 and the disordered structure offers more active sites for electrochemical reactions. The H-TiO2-R and H-TiO2-A electrodes are compared for sodium-ion battery applications. The superior performance of the former electrode is supported by the generalized gradient approximation Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof density functional calculation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5738-5746
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number6
StatePublished - 28 Jun 2021


  • crystalline phase effects
  • high-pressure hydrogenation
  • oxide anode
  • oxygen deficiency
  • oxygen vacancy


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