Human Brain Dynamics and Coordination Reflect the Task Difficulty of Optical Image Relational Reasoning

Wen Chi Chou*, Hsiao Ching She, Tzyy Ping Jung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite advances in neuroscience, the mechanisms by which human brain resolve optical image formation through relational reasoning remain unclear, particularly its relationships with task difficulty. Therefore, this study explores the underlying brain dynamics involved in optical image formation tasks at various difficulty levels, including those with a single convex lens and a single mirror. Compared to single convex lens relational reasoning with high task difficulty, the single mirror relational reasoning exhibited significantly higher response accuracy and shorter latency. As compared to single mirror tasks, single convex tasks exhibited greater frontal midline theta augmentation and right parietal alpha suppression during phase I and earlier phase II, and augmentation of frontal midline theta, right parietal-occipital alpha, and left mu alpha suppression during late phase II. Moreover, the frontal midline theta power in late phase II predicts the likelihood of solving single convex tasks the best, while the parietal alpha power in phase I is most predictive. In addition, frontal midline theta power exhibited stronger synchronization with right parietal alpha, right occipital alpha, and mu alpha power when solving single convex tasks than single mirror tasks. In summary, having stronger brain dynamics and coordination is vital for achieving optical image formation with greater difficulty.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2350018
JournalInternational journal of neural systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2023


  • Optical image relational reasoning
  • brain dynamics
  • brain synchrony


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