Intraoperative neuromonitoring can qualify and quantify RLN function during thyroid surgery. This study investigated how the severity and mechanism of RLN dysfunction during monitored thyroid surgery affected postoperative voice. This retrospective study analyzed 1021 patients that received standardized monitored thyroidectomy. Patients had post-dissection RLN(R2) signal <50%, 50–90% and >90% decrease from pre-dissection RLN(R1) signal were classified into Group A-no/mild, B-moderate, and C-severe RLN dysfunction, respectively. Demographic characteristics, RLN injury mechanisms(mechanical/thermal) and voice analysis parameters were recorded. More patients in the group with higher severity of RLN dysfunction had malignant pathology results (A/B/C = 35%/48%/55%, p = 0.017), received neck dissection (A/B/C = 17%/31%/55%, p < 0.001), had.