High-quality free-standing GaN thick-films prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using stress reducing techniques

Hsin Hsiung Huang, Wei I. Lee*, Kuei Ming Chen, Ting Li Chu, Pei Lun Wu, Hung Wei Yu, Po Chun Liu, Chu Li Chao, Tung Wei Chi, Jenq Dar Tsay, Li Wei Tu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


As one of the most mature techniques for manufacturing free-standing GaN substrates, hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) always encounters problems associated with residue thermal stress, such as GaN bending and cracking during and after growth. This work presents a patterning approach and a non-patterning approach to reduce stress in thick GaN films grown on sapphires by HVPE. The patterning approach, forming dot air-bridged structures, adopted standard photolithography to fabricate hexagonally aligned patterns of dots on GaN templates. Following HVPE growth, regular voids were formed and buried in the GaN thick-films. These voids helped to relax the stress in the GaN thick-films. In the non-patterning approach, thick GaN films were simply grown at a specially set sequence of ramping temperatures during HVPE growth without any patterned structure. This temperature-ramping technique, gives crack-free high-quality 2"-diameter GaN films, thicker than 250 μm, on sapphires in high yields. These thick GaN films can be separated from sapphire using conventional laser-induced lift-off processes, which can be followed by subsequent HVPE regrowths. A 600 μm-thick free-standing GaN films has a typical dislocation density of around 4×106 cm-2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) spectrum of GaN (002) of around 150 arcsec. The residual stress in the thick GaN films was analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effectiveness of the patterning and the non-patterning techniques in reducing the strain in GaN films is discussed. The advantages and weaknesses of the patterning and the non-patterning techniques will be elucidated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number723116
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2009
EventLight-Emitting Diodes: Materials, Devices, and Applications for Solid State Lighting XIII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: 27 Jan 200929 Jan 2009


  • Freestanding
  • GaN
  • HVPE
  • LLO
  • Residual stress


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