In this study, high-performance InGaN-based green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with a quaternary InAlGaN/GaN superlattice electron blocking layer (QSL-EBL) have been demonstrated. The band structural simulation was employed to investigate the electrostatic field and carriers distribution, show that the efficiency and droop behavior can be intensively improved by using a QSL-EBL in LEDs. The QSL-EBL structure can reduce the polarization-related electrostatic fields in the multiple quantum wells (MQWs), leading to a smoother band diagram and a more uniform carriers distribution among the quantum wells under forward bias. In comparison with green LEDs with conventional bulk-EBL structure, the light output power of LEDs with QSL-EBL was greatly enhanced by 53%. The efficiency droop shows only 30% at 100 A/cm2 comparing to its peak value, suggesting that the QSL-EBL LED is promising for future white lighting with high performance.