High-density lipoprotein protects vascular endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate insults through its antioxidant ability

Ching Chen, Chia Chi Chang, I. Ta Lee, Chun Yao Huang, Feng Yen Lin, Shing Jong Lin, Jaw Wen Chen, Ting Ting Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a uremic toxin that has been shown to inhibit nitric oxide production and cause cell senescence by inducing oxidative stress. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; however, its impacts on IS-damaged endothelial cells are still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effects of exogenous supplement of HDL on vascular endothelial cells in a uremia-mimic environment. Tube formation, migration, adhesion, and senescence assays were used to evaluate the cell function of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Reactive oxygen species generation was measured by using Amplex red assay. L-NAME and MCI186 were used as a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and a free radical scavenger, respectively. HDL exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects via HIF-1α/HO-1 activation and IL-1β/TNF-α/IL-6 inhibition in IS-stimulated HAECs. HDL improved angiogenesis ability through upregulating Akt/eNOS/VEGF/SDF-1 in IS-stimulated HAECs. HDL decreased endothelial adhesiveness via downregulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in IS-stimulated HAECs. Furthermore, HDL reduced cellular senescence via upregulating SIRT1 and downregulating p53 in IS-stimulated HAECs. Importantly, the above beneficial effects of HDL were mainly due to its antioxidant ability. In conclusion, HDL exerted a comprehensive protective effect on vascular endothelial cells against damage from IS through its antioxidant ability. The results of this study might provide a theoretical basis for potential HDL supplementation in CKD patients with endothelial damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2409-2423
Number of pages15
JournalCell Cycle
Issue number21-22
StatePublished - 2023


  • Vascular endothelial cell
  • high-density lipoprotein
  • indoxyl sulfate


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