Headache: an important factor associated with muscle soreness/pain at the two-year follow-up point among patients with major depressive disorder

Ching I. Hung, Chia Yih Liu, Ching Hui Yang, Shuu Jiun Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: No study has compared the associations of headache, anxiety, and depression at baseline with muscle soreness or pain (MS/P) at baseline and at the two-year follow-up point among outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate the above issue. Methods: This study enrolled 155 outpatients with MDD at baseline, and 131 attended a two-year follow-up appointment. At baseline, migraine was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. MDD and anxiety disorders were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. The visual analog scale was used to evaluate the intensities of headache and MS/P in the neck, shoulder, back, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple linear regressions were used to compare the associations of these factors with MS/P. Results: Compared with anxiety disorders, migraine was more strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and in the upper and lower limbs at follow-up. Headache intensity at baseline was the factor most strongly associated with MS/P in all areas at baseline and follow-up after controlling for depression and anxiety. Headache intensity at baseline predicted MS/P at baseline and follow-up. Conclusions: Migraine and headache intensity are important factors related to MS/P at baseline and follow-up among patients with MDD. Integrating depression and headache treatment might be indicated to improve MS/P.

Original languageEnglish
Article number57
JournalJournal of Headache and Pain
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Migraine
  • Muscle soreness
  • Pain

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