Genomic variance of Open Reading Frames (ORFs) and Spike protein in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Ping Hsing Tsai, Mong Lien Wang, De Ming Yang, Kung How Liang, Shih Jie Chou, Shih Hwa Chiou, Ta Hsien Lin, Chin Tien Wang, Tai Jay Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused severe pneumonia at December 2019. Since then, it has been wildly spread from Wuhan, China, to Asia, European, and United States to become the pandemic worldwide. Now coronavirus disease 2019 were globally diagnosed over 3 084 740 cases with mortality of 212 561 toll. Current reports variants are found in SARS-CoV-2, majoring in functional ribonucleic acid (RNA) to transcribe into structural proteins as transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein and the nucleocapsid (N) protein holds the virus RNA genome; the envelope (E) and membrane (M) alone with spike protein form viral envelope. The nonstructural RNA genome includes ORF1ab, ORF3, ORF6, 7a, 8, and ORF10 with highly conserved information for genome synthesis and replication in ORF1ab. Methods: We apply genomic alignment analysis to observe SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GenBank (http:// MN 908947 (China, C1); MN985325 (United States: WA, UW); MN996527 (China, C2); MT007544 (Australia: Victoria, A1); MT027064 (United States: CA, UC); MT039890 (South Korea, K1); MT066175 (Taiwan, T1); MT066176 (Taiwan, T2); LC528232 (Japan, J1); and LC528233 (Japan, J2) and Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data database (https://www.gisaid. org). We adopt Multiple Sequence Alignments web from Clustalw ( and Geneious web ( Results: We analyze database by genome alignment search for nonstructural ORFs and structural E, M, N, and S proteins. Mutations in ORF1ab, ORF3, and ORF6 are observed; specific variants in spike region are detected. Conclusion: We perform genomic analysis and comparative multiple sequence of SARS-CoV-2. Large scaling sequence alignments trace to localize and catch different mutant strains in United possibly to transmit severe deadly threat to humans. Studies about the biological symptom of SARS-CoV-2 in clinic animal and humans will be applied and manipulated to find mechanisms and shield the light for understanding the origin of pandemic crisis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-732
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Chinese Medical Association
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Genomic analysis
  • Multiple sequence
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2


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