Generating Third Harmonic Vacuum Ultraviolet Light with a TiO2 Metasurface

Michael Semmlinger, Ming Zhang, Ming Lun Tseng, Tzu Ting Huang, Jian Yang, Din Ping Tsai, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J. Halas*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Dielectric metasurfaces have recently been shown to provide an excellent platform for the harmonic generation of light due to their low optical absorption and to the strong electromagnetic field enhancement that can be designed into their constituent meta-atoms. Here, we demonstrate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) third harmonic generation from a specially designed dielectric metasurface consisting of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructure array. The metasurface was designed to enhance the generation of VUV light at a wavelength of 185 nm by tailoring its geometric design parameters to achieve an optical resonance at the fundamental laser wavelength of 555 nm. The metasurface exhibits an enhancement factor of nominally 180 compared to an unpatterned TiO2 thin film of the same thickness, evidence of strong field enhancement at the fundamental wavelength. Mode analysis reveals that the origin of the enhancement is an anapole resonance near the pump wavelength. This work demonstrates an effective strategy for the compact generation of VUV light that could enable expanded access to this useful region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8972-8978
Number of pages7
JournalNano letters
Issue number12
StatePublished - 11 Dec 2019


  • anapole
  • metamaterial
  • metasurface
  • third harmonic generation
  • titanium dioxide
  • Vacuum ultraviolet


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