From virtual worlds to reality: Moderating and mediating mechanisms between online and offline leadership

Yi Hsuan Lee*, Ying Che Hsieh, Chan Hsiao, Chen Hsiang Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore whether online leadership affects offline leadership through a mediation mechanism. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on social presence theory, the authors developed a mediation model of online leadership to offline leadership, and examine the moderating effect of interactivity. Data were collected through an internet questionnaire, with gamers in Taiwan’s leading forum as research targets. After receiving 912 valid questionnaires, the authors used SPSS 21 and AMOS 21 to conduct data analysis to test the model. Findings: The results show that online leadership will affect offline leadership. Moreover, game achievements and character identification have partial mediated effects in this model. Finally, interactivity has a moderating effect in this model. Practical implications: These findings provide insights for future leadership training effectiveness, training guidelines, game design, and selection of references. Originality/value: This research extends the current state of knowledge about the paths to transfer online leadership experiences to office situations through direct influence, game achievement, and character identification.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)557-577
Number of pages21
JournalInformation Technology and People
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2018


  • Character identification
  • Computer Games
  • Game achievement
  • Human computer interaction (HCI)
  • Interactivity
  • Offline leadership
  • Online leadership
  • Social presence theory
  • Structural equation modelling
  • User participation
  • Virtual community


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