Background. Serum Golgi membrane protein 1 (GOLM1) is a novel biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between GOLM1 protein expression and clinicopathologic features in HCC patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GOLM1 in human HCC and its correlation with clinicopathologic parameters. Methods. Clinicopathologic data were obtained through a detailed retrospective review of the medical records of 193 patients with HCC who had undergone surgical resection between 1990 and 2006 at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Another 120 HCC tissue samples provided by the Taiwan Liver Cancer Network were used as validation cohort. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the expression of GOLM1 in archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Results. GOLM1 expression was significantly higher in resected HCC tumor tissues than in corresponding normal liver tissues (p\0.01). After a median follow-up of 51 months, multivariate analysis showed that portal vein invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 1.515; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI], 1.008-2.277; p = 0.046) and high GOLM1 protein expression (HR, 1.696; 95 % CI, 1.160-2.479; p = 0.006) were independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival. High GOLM1 protein expression still significantly correlates with worse overall survival as well as disease-free survival in the validation cohort (p\0.001 and p = 0.002). Conclusions. Overexpression of GOLM1 is associated with poor prognosis in human HCC.