Excess pressure but not pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive function impairment: A community-based study

Chen Hua Lin, Hao Min Cheng, Jiun Jr Wang, Li Ning Peng, Liang Kung Chen, Pei Ning Wang, Chen Huan Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background:Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), an index of mainly distal aortic stiffness, has been inconsistently associated with cognitive function. Excess pressure, derived from the arterial reservoir-excess pressure analysis, may integrate the pulsatile load of the proximal aorta. The present study examined whether increased excess pressure is associated with cognitive function impairment in community adults.Methods:A total of 992 community participants (69.5% females; mean age: 67.3 years; education 13.6 years) without cerebrovascular disease or dementia received the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to evaluate global cognition. Arterial reservoir and excess pressure, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections were assessed, using carotid tonometry and aortic Doppler flowmetry.Results:Excess pressure integral (XSPI), percentage XSPI, cf-PWV, characteristic impedance (Zc), and forward and backward pressure amplitude (Pf, Pb, respectively) were significantly higher in 197 participants (19.9%) with a low MoCA score (<26 or <25, depending on level of education). In multivariable analyses, XSPI (standardized odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, 1.30, 1.06-1.59), and percentage XSPI (1.27, 1.06-1.52) but not cf-PWV (1.04, 0.85-1.26) were significantly associated with a low MoCA. Further analysis revealed that Pf and Zc were the major determinants of XSPI (partial R2: Pf = 0.656, Zc = 0.467) and percentage XSPI (Pf = 0.459, Zc = 0.371). In contrast, age, instead of Pf and Zc, was the major determinant of cf-PWV (partial R2: age = 0.187).Conclusions:Excess pressure (XSPI/percentage XSPI), mainly determined by the pulsatile hemodynamics of the proximal aorta, was significantly associated with cognitive function impairment in middle-aged and elderly community adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1776-1785
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2022


  • cognitive function
  • reservoir-excess analysis
  • vascular aging


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