Evolution retrospective for alternative fuels: First to fourth generation

Kasturi Dutta, Achlesh Daverey, Jih-Gaw Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

252 Scopus citations


The ever increasing worldwide demand for liquid and gaseous fuels along with overwhelming environmental concerns for greenhouse gas emissions have driven scientists and technologists to consider different alternative energy sources. In past decades, several biomass sources have been identified with increasing potential to be used as new alternative sources of energy - the "Biofuels". The evolution of biofuels is classified into four different generations.In this article an overview of the systematic evolution of different biofuel generations with their advantages and disadvantages has been presented. The advancements in technology, reduction in greenhouse gas emission and assessment of commercial production cost of each generation of biofuel have also been highlighted. Finally this review provides an outlook for a better future generation biofuel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-122
Number of pages9
JournalRenewable Energy
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Algae
  • Alternative biofuels
  • Biodiesel
  • Greenhouse gas
  • Metabolic engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Evolution retrospective for alternative fuels: First to fourth generation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this