Evaluation of students' self-assessment performance in preclinical endodontic training by means of rubrics and a 3D printed model

Sung Ting Tsai, Yi Ching Ho, Chia Lun Tsai, Shue Fen Yang, Yu Lin Lai, Shyh Yuan Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background/purpose: Effective evaluation of students' self-assessment ability is crucial. This study was to develop a standardized 3D printed teaching model accompanied by structured scoring rubrics for preclinical endodontic training, to appraise students' self-assessment ability, and to evaluate their perceptions of the training system. Methods: The 3D printing model was designed to house a standardized central incisor. Forty-four undergraduate dental students were enrolled and their endodontic performance was self-assessed and also rated by a teaching assistant and a tutor using 3 structured rubrics including access cavity, mechanical preparation, and obturation assessments. In total, 21 rubric evaluation items of preclinical tasks were assessed, and the assessment results from the student, teaching assistant, and tutor were compared. Furthermore, questionnaires were used to evaluate students’ experiences with the new system. Results: The tutor, teaching assistant, and students all had similar scorings and high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for mechanical preparation and obturation rubrics, while the students had underestimated scores on the access cavity rubric with a rather low ICC of 0.387, which also lead to the underestimated overall scoring (P < 0.05). Among the 21 evaluation criteria, 9 items were rated statistically different (P < 0.05), which denoted the major deficiencies of students’ self-assessments. More than 80% of students rated satisfied for most of the questions regarding the new training system, except the tactile sensation, hardness, and radiopacity. Conclusion: The proposed standardized 3D printed model and structured scoring rubrics is feasible for preclinical endodontic training, and standardized evaluation of students' self-assessment ability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2203-2210
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Formosan Medical Association
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • 3D printing
  • Preclinical endodontic training
  • Rubrics
  • Self-assessment
  • Self-learning


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