Evaluation of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 exposure and the resultant health risk of preschool children and their caregivers

Kuo Pin Yu*, Yu Cheng Lee, Yen Chi Chen, Jia You Gong, Ming Hsuan Tsai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Preschool children have a higher respiratory rate per unit body weight than adults, and their respiratory systems are not mature. Hence, children may have more health risks associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. In this study, we assessed the exposure of preschool children and their caregivers to PM and the resulting health risks. The PM concentrations at heights of 60–80 cm (preschool children) and 150 cm (adults) were measured at ten indoor and eight outdoor sites in the Taipei metropolitan area from March 2015 to February 2017. Four PM2.5 and seven PM10 indoor measurements exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan, whereas only two PM2.5 outdoor measurements exceeded the ambient air quality standard. The outdoor PM concentrations were related to traffic emissions, whereas the indoor PM concentrations were associated with ventilation rate and occupant density. The chronic daily PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 intakes of preschool children were notably higher than those of adults. In addition, the hazard quotient resulting from PM2.5 exposure indicated a significant health risk for preschool children (93.74% greater than 1). Consequently, reducing the exposure of preschool children to PM2.5 is an emerging issue in the Taipei metropolitan area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)961-971
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2019


  • health risk assessment
  • Particulate matter exposure
  • preschool children
  • Taipei City


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