To evaluate how a cell responds to the external stimuli, treatment, or alteration of the microenvironment, the quantity and quality of mitochondria are commonly used as readouts. However, it is challenging to apply mitochondrial analysis to the samples that are composed of mixed cell populations originating from tissues or when multiple cell populations are of interest, using methods such as Western blot, electron microscopy, or extracellular flux analysis. Flow cytometry is a technique allowing the detection of individual cell status and its identity simultaneously when used in combination with surface markers. Here we describe how to combine mitochondria-specific dyes or the dyes targeting the superoxide produced by mitochondria with surface marker staining to measure the mitochondrial content and activity in live cells by flow cytometry. This method can be applied to all types of cells in suspension and is particularly useful for analysis of samples composed of heterogeneous cell populations.