Estimation of tool wear and surface roughness development using deep learning and sensors fusion

Pao Ming Huang, Ching Hung Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


This paper proposes an estimation approach for tool wear and surface roughness using deep learning and sensor fusion. The one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) is utilized as the estimation model with X-and Y-coordinate vibration signals and sound signal fusion using sensor influence analysis. First, machining experiments with computer numerical control (CNC) parameters are designed using a uniform experimental design (UED) method to guarantee the variety of collected data. The vibration, sound, and spindle current signals are collected and labeled according to the machining parameters. To speed up the degree of tool wear, an accelerated experiment is designed, and the corresponding tool wear and surface roughness are measured. An influential sensor selection analysis is proposed to preserve the estimation accuracy and to minimize the number of sensors. After sensor selection analysis, the sensor signals with better estimation capability are selected and combined using the sensor fusion method. The proposed estimation system combined with sensor selection analysis performs well in terms of accuracy and computational effort. Finally, the proposed approach is applied for on-line monitoring of tool wear with an alarm, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5338
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2 Aug 2021


  • Convolution neural network
  • Deep learning
  • Fusion
  • Sound
  • Surface roughness
  • Tool wear
  • Vibration


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