Estimation of the Surface Dose in Breast Irradiation by the Beam Incident Angle and the 1 cm Depth Dose

Tsung Yu Yen, Kai Cheng Chuang, Hsiao Mei Fu, Chen Ju Feng, Ke Yu Lien, Shih Ming Hsu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To develop a method of estimating surface dose in whole breast irradiation, we used an anthropomorphic phantom with accessories for the simulation of different breast sizes. The surface points, which are measured by TLDs, are set along with two main directions, superior-inferior and medial-lateral. The incident angle between the photon beam and the surface and the doses at 1 cm beneath the surface at every point are assessed by a computerized treatment planning system (cTPS). With the prescription dose of 200 cGy, the average surface doses under tangential irradiation are 97.73 (±14.96) cGy, 99.90 (±10.73) cGy, and 105.26 (±9.21) cGy for large, medium, and small breast volumes, respectively. The surface dose increased in the model of small breast volume without significance (p = 0.39). The linear analysis between surface dose and the incident angle is y = 0.5258x + 69.648, R2 = 0.7131 (x: incident angle and y: surface dose). We develop the percentage of skin surface dose with reference to a depth of 1 cm (PSDR1cm) to normalize the inhomogeneous dose. The relationship between incident angle and PSDR1cm is y = 0.1894x + 36.021, R2 = 0.6536 (x: incident angle and y: PSDR1cm) by linear analysis. In conclusion, the surface dose in whole breast irradiation could be estimated from this linear relationship between PSDR1cm and incident angle in daily clinical practice by cTPS. Further in vivo data should be studied to verify this formula.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2154
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • anthropomorphic phantom
  • breast radiotherapy
  • surface dose


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