Estimating the risks of adverse radiation effects after gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations

Hideyuki Kano*, John C. Flickinger, Daniel Tonetti, Alan Hsu, Huai Che Yang, Thomas J. Flannery, Ajay Niranjan, L. Dade Lunsford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose - We evaluated risk factors associated with the development of adverse radiation effects (ARE) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods - We evaluated 755 patients with AVM who underwent a single Gamma Knife SRS procedure with at least a 2-year minimum follow-up. Eighty-seven patients (12%) underwent previous resection and 128 (17%) had previous embolization. The median target volume was 3.6 mL (range, 0.1-26.3 mL). The median margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 13-27 Gy). Results - Fifty-five patients (7%) developed symptomatic ARE at a median follow-up of 75 months. The cumulative rates of symptomatic ARE were 3.2%, 5.8%, 6.7%, and 7.5% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Factors associated with a higher rate of developing symptomatic ARE included larger AVM volume, higher margin dose, larger 12-Gy volume, higher Spetzler-Martin grade, and higher radiosurgery-based score. The rates of developing symptomatic ARE were higher in the brain stem (22%) or thalamus (16%), compared with AVMs located in other brain locations (4%-8%). Nineteen patients (3%) sustained irreversible new neurological deficits related to ARE, and 1 patient died. The rates of irreversible symptomatic ARE were 0.8%, 1.9%, 2.1%, and 2.8% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The 5-year cumulative rates of irreversible symptomatic ARE were 9.1% in thalamus, 12.1% in brain stem, and 1.4% in other locations. Conclusions - The knowledge of ARE risk rates after AVM radiosurgery can assist informed consent for patients with AVM, their families, and healthcare providers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-90
Number of pages7
JournalStroke
Volume48
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017

Keywords

  • adverse radiation effects
  • arteriovenous malformation
  • complication
  • Gamma knife
  • radiation necrosis
  • stereotactic radiosurgery
  • T2 changes

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