Estimating the daily average concentration variations of PCDD/Fs in Taiwan using a novel Geo-AI based ensemble mixed spatial model

Chin Yu Hsu, Tien Wei Lin, Jennieveive B. Babaan, Aji Kusumaning Asri, Pei Yi Wong, Kai Hsien Chi, Tuan Hung Ngo, Yu Hsuan Yang, Wen Chi Pan, Chih Da Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


It is generally established that PCDD/Fs is harmful to human health and therefore extensive field research is necessary. This study is the first to use a novel geospatial-artificial intelligence (Geo-AI) based ensemble mixed spatial model (EMSM) that integrates multiple machine learning algorithms and geographic predictor variables selected using SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values to predict spatial-temporal fluctuations in PCDD/Fs concentrations across the entire island of Taiwan. Daily PCDD/F I-TEQ levels from 2006 to 2016 were used for model construction, while external data was used for validating model dependability. We utilized Geo-AI, incorporating kriging, five machine learning, and ensemble methods (combinations of the aforementioned five models) to develop EMSMs. The EMSMs were used to estimate long-term spatiotemporal variations in PCDD/F I-TEQ levels, considering in-situ measurements, meteorological factors, geospatial predictors, social and seasonal influences over a 10-year period. The findings demonstrated that the EMSM was superior to all other models, with an increase in explanatory power reaching 87 %. The results of spatial-temporal resolution show that the temporal fluctuation of PCDD/F concentrations can be a result of weather circumstances, while geographical variance can be the result of urbanization and industrialization. These results provide accurate estimates that support pollution control measures and epidemiological studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number131859
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2023


  • Ensemble Mixed Spatial Model (EMSM)
  • Geo-AI
  • Machine Learning
  • PCDD/Fs
  • Spatial variability


Dive into the research topics of 'Estimating the daily average concentration variations of PCDD/Fs in Taiwan using a novel Geo-AI based ensemble mixed spatial model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this