Background: The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) is rapidly increasing. We evaluated the clinicopathological difference and outcomes of Taiwanese patients with AEG according to the Siewert classification. Methods: Data were prospectively collected between December 1987 and July 2007. Two hundred thirty-one patients underwent curative resection of AEG at Taipei Veterans General Hospital and were divided into different Siewert types. The clinicopathological characteristics, operative morbidity, survival, and initial recurrence pattern were compared between the different types. Results: Fifty-one type II and 180 type III cancer patients were studied. Subtotal esophagectomy via a left thoracotomy (19.6% vs 2.8%), smaller tumor size (4.43 ± 2.04 vs. 5.35 ± 2.03 cm), and more combined organ resection (60% vs. 43.1%) were more common in type II than type III cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that three independent risk factors for death were gender, tumor size, and lymphovascular invasion. There were long-term survivors among the patients with lesser curvature site lymph node metastasis, whereas metastasis to the lymph nodes of the distal stomach and along the greater curvature site was associated with poor prognosis. The 5-year survival was similar between type II and type III cancer (59.6% vs. 63.5%, P = 0.947). Conclusions: Lymphovascular invasion, tumor size, and gender were determined to be three independent factors of survival after curative resection for AEG, and Siewert type was not associated with differences in survival.