Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus that infects humans and exhibits a biphasic life cycle consisting of latent and lytic phases. Following entry into host cells, the KSHV genome undergoes circularization and chromatinization into an extrachromosomal episome ultimately leading to the establishment of latency. The KSHV episome is organized into distinct chromatin domains marked by variations in repressive or activating epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone methylation, and histone acetylation. Thus, the development of KSHV latency is believed to be governed by epigenetic regulation. In the past decade, interrogation of the KSHV epitome by genome-wide approaches has revealed a complex epigenetic mark landscape across KSHV genome and has uncovered the important regulatory roles of epigenetic modifications in governing the development of KSHV latency. Here, we highlight many of the findings regarding the role of DNA methylation, histone modification, post-translational modification (PTM) of chromatin remodeling proteins, the contribution of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulating KSHV latency development, and the role of higher-order episomal chromatin architecture in the maintenance of latency and the latent-to-lytic switch.
- DNA methylation
- histone modification
- Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)
- long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)
- post-translational modification (PTM)