Emerging roles of inhibitor of differentiation-1 in alzheimer’s disease: Cell cycle reentry and beyond

Shang Der Chen, Jenq Lin Yang, Yi Chun Lin, A. Ching Chao, Ding I. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Inhibitor of DNA-binding/differentiation (Id) proteins, a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins that includes four members of Id1 to Id4 in mammalian cells, are critical for regulating cell growth, differentiation, senescence, cell cycle progression, and increasing angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as accelerating the ability of cell migration. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease in the adult population, manifests the signs of cognitive decline, behavioral changes, and functional impairment. The underlying mechanisms for AD are not well-clarified yet, but the aggregation of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβs), the major components in the senile plaques observed in AD brains, contributes significantly to the disease progression. Emerging evidence reveals that aberrant cell cycle reentry may play a central role in Aβ-induced neuronal demise. Recently, we have shown that several signaling mediators, including Id1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), cyclin-dependent kinases-5 (CDK5), and sonic hedgehog (Shh), may contribute to Aβ-induced cell cycle reentry in postmitotic neurons; furthermore, Id1 and CDK5/p25 mutually antagonize the expression/activity of each other. Therefore, Id proteins may potentially have clinical applications in AD. In this review article, we introduce the underlying mechanisms for cell cycle dysregulation in AD and present some examples, including our own studies, to show different aspects of Id1 in terms of cell cycle reentry and other signaling that may be crucial to alter the neuronal fates in this devastating neurodegenerative disease. A thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms may provide a rationale to make an earlier intervention before the occurrence of cell cycle reentry and subsequent apoptosis in the fully differentiated neurons during the progression of AD or other neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1746
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cell cycle reentry
  • Inhibitor of DNA-binding/differentiation proteins
  • Neurodegenerative diseases


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