Electrically Copolymerized Polydopamine Melanin/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Applied for Bioactive Multimodal Neural Interfaces with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

Wei Chen Huang*, Ching Heng Hung, Yueh Wen Lin, Yu Cheng Zheng, Wan Lou Lei, Huai En Lu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Multimodal neural interfaces include combined functions of electrical neuromodulation and synchronic monitoring of neurochemical and physiological signals in one device. The remarkable biocompatibility and electrochemical performance of polystyrene sulfonate-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT:PSS) have made it the most recommended conductive polymer neural electrode material. However, PEDOT:PSS formed by electrochemical deposition, called PEDOT/PSS, often need multiple doping to improve structural instability in moisture, resolve the difficulties of functionalization, and overcome the poor cellular affinity. In this work, inspired by the catechol-derived adhesion and semiconductive properties of polydopamine melanin (PDAM), we used electrochemical oxidation polymerization to develop PDAM-doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PDAM) as a bioactive multimodal neural interface that permits robust electrochemical performance, structural stability, analyte-trapping capacity, and neural stem cell affinity. The use of potentiodynamic scans resolved the problem of copolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and dopamine (DA), enabling the formation of PEDOT/PDAM self-assembled nanodomains with an ideal doping state associated with remarkable current storage and charge transfer capacity. Owing to the richness of hydrogen bond donors/acceptors provided by the hydroxyl groups of PDAM, PEDOT/PDAM presented better electrochemical and mechanical stability than PEDOT/PSS. It has also enabled high sensitivity and selectivity in the electrochemical detection of DA. Different from PEDOT/PSS, which inhibited the survival of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, PEDOT/PDAM maintained cell proliferation and even promoted cell differentiation into neuronal networks. Finally, PEDOT/PDAM was modified on a commercialized microelectrode array system, which resulted in the reduction of impedance by more than one order of magnitude; this significantly improved the resolution and reduced the noise of neuronal signal recording. With these advantages, PEDOT/PDAM is anticipated to be an efficient bioactive multimodal neural electrode material with potential application to brain-machine interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4807-4818
Number of pages12
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 14 Nov 2022

Keywords

  • PEDOT
  • bioactive neural interfaces
  • dopamine sensing
  • induced pluripotent stem cells
  • multimodal
  • polydopamine melanin

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