Electrical and Reliability Investigation of Cu-to-Cu Bonding with Silver Passivation Layer in 3D Integration

Tzu Chieh Chou, Shin Yi Huang, Pin Jun Chen, Han Wen Hu, Demin Liu, Chih Wei Chang, Tzu Hsuan Ni, Chao Jung Chen, Yu Min Lin, Tao Chih Chang, Kuan-Neng Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In this article, low temperature Cu-Cu bonding with Ag passivation layer was accomplished at 180 °C for 3 min without a post-annealing process. The Ag passivation layer effectively prevents Cu from oxidation and assists Cu diffusion to realize low temperature bonding. Small grain size of Ag passivation layer controlled by sputtering working pressure is observed to improve bonding quality. Different plasma treatment parameters and bonding conditions were executed to evaluate bonding quality. The diffusion behavior of passivation bonding is investigated and corresponding mechanism is discussed as well. In addition, reliability assessments, including thermal cycling, high temperature storage, and un-biased highly accelerated stress test, indicate excellent stability of this bonding structure, showing the potential for low temperature bonding technology in three-dimensional (3D) integration applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-42
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • 3D integration
  • Bonding
  • Cu bonding
  • interconnect
  • Passivation
  • Plasma temperature
  • Plasmas
  • Rough surfaces
  • Surface morphology
  • Surface roughness


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