Effects of virtual reality on preoperative anxiety in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Yen Ju Chen, Cheng Ju Wang, Chi Wen Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims: To synthesise and evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality interventions in preoperative children. Background: Children consider operations as a predictable threat and stressful event. Children's anxiety before an operation increases as the time draws closer. Children could understand the operating room environment and process before the operation using virtual reality, which may reduce their anxiety before an operation. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials following the Cochrane method were conducted. Method: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched for randomised controlled trials published before February 2021. A random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalence and 95% confidence intervals was performed. Conduction of the review adheres to the PRISMA checklist. Results: Of 257 articles screened, six interventions involving 529 participants aged 4–12 years were included in the analysis. All study evidence levels were B2/Level 2, the quality was medium to high on the modified Jadad scale, with a low risk of bias. The results revealed that virtual reality significantly reduced preoperative anxiety in children (SMD: −0.91, 95% CI: −1.43 to −0.39, p =.0006). Furthermore, virtual reality significantly improved children's compliance with anaesthesia (SMD: 3.49, 95% CI: 1.32 to 9.21, p =.01). Conclusion: Children who used virtual reality before an operation felt more familiar with the operating room environment and understood the preoperative preparation procedures. Virtual reality effectively reduced children's anxiety and improved their compliance with anaesthesia. Relevance to clinical practice: This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effect of virtual reality on preoperative anxiety in children and the findings supported its positive effects. The results could provide a reference for incorporating virtual reality into preoperative preparation guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2494-2504
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Nursing
Volume32
Issue number11-12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

Keywords

  • children
  • meta-analysis
  • preoperative anxiety
  • systematic review
  • virtual reality

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