Effects of square-stepping exercise on motor and cognitive function in older adults — A systematic review and meta-analysis

Yin Hsiang Wang, Yun Hsien Liu, Yea Ru Yang, Ray-Yau Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: To document the effects of square-stepping exercise (SSE) on motor and cognitive function in older adults. Methods: Five online databases were searched in May 2021. Controlled studies published from 2006 to May 2021 were included. The experimental group received SSE alone or SSE combined with other exercise(s), whereas the control group received no training or other exercise(s). Motor and cognitive outcomes included balance, fall risk, agility, endurance, gait speed, flexibility, muscle strength, reaction time, global cognitive function, memory, and executive function. Results: Ten articles with a total of 920 participants were included. Static balance (p=0.0009), dynamic balance (p=0.0008), fall risk (p<0.00001), and agility (p=0.02) improved more in the intervention group than in the control group. However, SSE did not seem to exert beneficial effects on cognitive function. Conclusion: In older adults, SSE provided beneficial effects on motor function, including static and dynamic balance, risk of falls, and agility. However, positive effects on cognitive function were not observed and require further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1583-1593
Number of pages11
JournalGeriatric Nursing
Volume42
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Cognitive function
  • Meta-analysis
  • Motor function
  • Older adults
  • Square-stepping exercise

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