The traditional biomedical care approach has been unsatisfactory to meet the complex needs of seniors with long-term multimorbidity and irreversible disability, particularly for those living in residential LTC facilities. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week biopsychosocial-spiritual (BPS-S) group intervention with the attempt to enhance quality of life (QoL) and meaning in life among senior residents with disability. This single-blind randomized controlled trail was conducted in eight residential LTC facilities. The primary outcome, ‘participants' overall and subdomain QoL’, and the secondary outcome, ‘meaning in life’, were repeatedly assessed, including four time points: before, mid- and post-intervention, and at a 1-month follow-up. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to assess between-group differences over time. The post-intervention differences indicated significant higher improvement on senior residents' overall and all 4 domains of QoL, as well as their meaning in life, between the baseline and both times of post-intervention and 1-month follow-up. On the other hand, participants' family QoL have improved immediately in the midst of intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of an 8-week BPS-S group therapy. We recommend the BPS-S be integrated into routine institutional care activities to help maximize senior residents' own capacity for self-healing, achieve a state of harmonious balance between body, mind, social and spiritual relationships; and in turn, enhance holistic health of this group.
- biopsychosocial-spiritual group intervention
- long-term care facilities
- meaning in life
- older adults
- quality of life