Effects of a 6-Minute Fast-Walking Protocol on Changes in Muscle Activity in Individuals with Flatfoot

Chu Yuan Chiang, Kuang Wei Lin, Hui Min Lee, Shun Hwa Wei, Li Wei Chou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Flatfoot causes abnormal biomechanics in the lower extremity, resulting in discomfort and excessive burden on lower extremity muscles during functional tasks, and it potentially leads to associated syndromes in the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to investigate how a demanding, repetitive task affects the muscle strength, activities, and fatigue of the lower extremities during function tasks. Nineteen individuals with flexible flatfoot (10M9F, age: 24.74 ± 2.68 years) and fifteen non-flatfoot participants (6M9F, age: 24.47 ± 3.74) took part in this study. All participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction and functional tasks, including walking and single-leg standing tests before and immediately after a 6-min fast-walking protocol. A surface electromyography system was used to collect muscle activation data. Our results showed that, after 6 min of fast walking, peroneus longus activity increased only in the non-flatfoot group, and gastrocnemius activity increased in the flexible flatfoot group. In the flexible flatfoot group, greater recruitment in abductor halluces and greater fatigue in the tibialis anterior was observed. Individuals with flexible flatfoot showed altered muscle activation pattern after 6-min fast walking. These findings can provide an evidence-based explanation of associated syndromes in flatfoot populations and lead to potential intervention strategies in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2207
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Biomechanics
  • Flexible flatfoot
  • Muscle activity
  • Six-minute fast walk


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