Effect of Electrode–Normal Magnetic Field on the Motion of Hydrogen Bubbles

Yen Ju Chen, Yan Hom Li*, Ching Yao Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In comparison to alternative methods for hydrogen production, water electrolysis stands out as the optimal means for obtaining ultra-pure hydrogen. However, its widespread adoption is significantly hampered by its low energy efficiency. It has been established that the introduction of an external magnetic field can mitigate energy consumption, consequently enhancing electrolysis efficiency. While much of the research has revealed that an electrode–parallel magnetic field plays a crucial role in enhancing the bubble detachment process, there has been limited exploration of the effect of electrode–normal magnetic fields. In this work, we compare the water electrolysis efficiency of a circular electrode subjected to electrode–normal magnetic field resulting in a magnet edge effect and electrode edge effect by varying the sizes of the magnet and electrode. The findings indicate that a rotational flow caused by the Lorentz force facilitates the detachment of the hydrogen from the electrode surface. However, the rotation direction of hydrogen gas bubbles generated by the magnet edge effect is opposite to that of electrode edge effect. Furthermore, the magnet edge effect has more significant influence on the hydrogen bubbles’ locomotion than the electrode edge effect. With an electrode gap of 30 mm, employing the magnet edge effect generated by a single magnet leads to an average of 4.9% increase in current density. On the other hand, the multiple magnet effects created by multiple small magnets under the electrode can further result in an average 6.6% increase in current density. Nevertheless, at an electrode spacing of 50 mm, neither the magnet edge effect nor the electrode edge effect demonstrates a notable enhancement in conductivity. In reality, the electrode edge effect even leads to a reduction in conductivity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number233
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • Lorentz force
  • electrode edge effect
  • hydrogen
  • magnet edge effect
  • water electrolysis


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