Eco-Efficient Synthesis of Highly Porous CoCO3 Anodes from Supercritical CO2 for Li+ and Na+ Storage

Hui Ying Li, Chuan Ming Tseng, Cheng Hsien Yang, Tai Chou Lee, Ching Yuan Su, Chien Te Hsieh, Jeng-Kuei Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


An eco-efficient synthetic route for the preparation of high-performance carbonate anodes for Li+ and Na+ batteries is developed. With supercritical CO2 (scCO2) as the precursor, which has gas-like diffusivity, extremely low viscosity, and near-zero surface tension, CoCO3 particles are uniformly formed and tightly connected on graphene nanosheets (GNSs). This synthesis can be conducted at 50 °C, which is considerably lower than the temperature required for conventional preparation methods, minimizing energy consumption. The obtained CoCO3 particles (ca. 20 nm in diameter), which have a unique interpenetrating porous structure, can increase the number of electroactive sites, promote electrolyte accessibility, shorten ion diffusion length, and readily accommodate the strain generated upon charging/discharging. With a reversible capacity of 1105 mAh g−1, the proposed CoCO3/GNS anode shows an excellent rate capability, as it can deliver 745 mAh g−1 in 7.5 min. More than 98 % of the initial capacity is retained after 200 cycles. These properties are clearly superior to those of previously reported CoCO3-based electrodes for Li+ storage, indicating the merit of our scCO2-based synthesis, which is facile, green, and can be easily scaled up for mass production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2464-2472
Number of pages9
Issue number11
StatePublished - 9 Jun 2017


  • batteries
  • cobalt
  • energy storage
  • green chemistry
  • supercritical fluids


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