Dynamic modeling of a parallel-connected solid oxide fuel cell stack system

Chien Chang Wu, Tsung Lin Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This study proposes novel simulation methods to model the power delivery function of a parallel-connected solid-oxide-fuel-cell stack system. The proposed methods are then used to investigate the possible thermal runaway induced by the performance mismatch between the employed stacks. A challenge in this modeling study is to achieve the same output voltage but different output current for each employed stack. Conventional fuel-cell models cannot be used, because they employ fuel flow rates and stack currents as the input variables. These two variables are unknown in the parallel-connected stack systems. The proposed method solves the aforementioned problems by integrating the fuel supply dynamics with the conventional stack models and then arranging them in a multiple-feedback-loop configuration for conducting simulations. The simulation results indicate that the proposed methods can model the transient response of the parallel-connected stack system. Moreover, for the dynamics of the power distribution, there exists an unstable positive feedback loop between employed stacks when the stack temperatures are low, and a stable negative feedback loop when the stack temperatures are high. A thermal runaway could be initiated when the dynamics of the stack temperature is slower than that of the current distribution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number501
Issue number2
StatePublished - 20 Jan 2020


  • Distributed power generation
  • Fuel cell stacks
  • Parallel architectures
  • Thermal runaway


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