Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently been proven as a novel type of ultrabright fluorescent probes that can be extensively used in analytical detection. Here, we developed a dual visual sensor based on Pdots for fingerprint imaging. We first designed and synthesized two types of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent polymers and then embedded ninhydrin into the Pdot matrix. The resulting Pdot assays showed the colorimetric and fluorescent dual-readout abilities to detect latent fingerprints on both porous and nonporous surfaces. The developed fingerprints clearly revealed first-, second-, and third-level details with high contrast, high selectivity, and low background interference. We also grafted the chemical groups on the nanoparticle surface to investigate the mechanisms involved in the fingerprint development processes. We further utilized this assay in note paper and checks for latent fingerprint imaging. We believe that this dual-readout method based on Pdots will create a new avenue for research in fingerprint detection and anticounterfeiting technology.