Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a condition wherein patients with depression fail to respond to antidepressant trials. A new form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), called theta-burst stimulation (TBS), which includes intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) and continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS), is non-inferior to rTMS in TRD treatment. However, the mechanism of iTBS and cTBS underlying the treatment of TRD in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Hence, we applied foot-shock stress as a traumatic event to develop a TRD rat model and investigated the different mechanisms of iTBS and cTBS. The iTBS and cTBS treatment were effective in depressive-like behavior and active coping behavior. The iTBS treatments improved impaired long-term potentiation and long-term depression (LTD), whereas the cTBS treatment only improved aberrant LTD. Moreover, the decrease in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related protein levels were reversed by iTBS treatment. The decrease in proBDNF-related protein expression was improved by iTBS and cTBS treatment. Both iTBS and cTBS improved the decreased α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors and downregulation of mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. The iTBS produces both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic effects, and the cTBS only produces inhibitory synaptic effects in the PFC.
|State||Published - Apr 2023|
- Continuous theta-burst stimulation
- Intermittent theta-burst stimulation
- Prefrontal cortex
- Synaptic plasticity
- Treatment-resistant depression