Tin-based perovskites degrade rapidly upon interaction with water and oxygen in air because Sn-I bonds are weak. To address this issue, we developed novel tin perovskites, FASnI(3-x)(SCN)x (x = 0, 1, 2, or 3), by employing a pseudohalide, thiocyanate (SCN-), as a replacement for halides and as an inhibitor to suppress the Sn2+/Sn4+ oxidation. The structural and electronic properties of pseudohalide tin perovskites in this series were explored with quantum-chemical calculations by employing the plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) method; the corresponding results are consistent with the experimental results. Carbon-based perovskite devices fabricated with tin perovskite FASnI(SCN)2 showed about a threefold enhancement of the device efficiency (2.4%) relative to that of the best FASnI3-based device (0.9%), which we attribute to the improved suppression of the formation of Sn4+, retarded charge recombination, enhanced hydrophobicity, and stronger interactions between Sn and thiocyanate for FASnI(SCN)2 than those for FASnI3. After the incorporation of phenylethyleneammonium iodide (PEAI, 10%) and ethylenediammonium diiodide (EDAI2, 5%) as coadditives, the FASnI(SCN)2 device gave the best photovoltaic performance with JSC = 20.17 mA cm-2, VOC = 322 mV, fill factor (FF) = 0.574, and overall efficiency of power conversion PCE = 3.7%. Moreover, these pseudohalide-containing devices display negligible photocurrent-voltage hysteresis and great stability in ambient air conditions.
- solar cells
- tin perovskite