Development of a Direct Non-Puncture Device for Measuring Portal Venous Pressure during Liver Transplantation—A Swine Model

Kung Chen Ho, Tun Sung Huang, Jiunn Chang Lin, Huihua Kenny Chiang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Portal hypertension-related complications pose a significant risk for liver failure post-transplantation. Thus, accurate monitoring of intraoperative portal venous pressure (PVP) is crucial. However, current PVP monitoring techniques requiring direct percutaneous puncture carry the risk of graft damage. In this study, we present an innovative non-puncture PVP monitoring device (PVPMD) using a 3D-printed prototype. PVPMD design is inspired by the sphygmomanometer principle, and strategically encompasses the portal vein and enables precise PVP measurement through blood flow ultrasonography after temporary occlusion. By a series of mini-pig experiments, the prototype PVPMD demonstrated a strong correlation with invasive catheter measurements in the main trunk of the portal vein (rs = 0.923, p = 0.000). There was a significant repeatability and reproducibility between the prototype PVPMD- and invasive catheter-measured PVP. This indicates that the PVPMD holds immense potential for direct application in liver transplantation and surgery. Moreover, it has the potential to replace catheter-based central venous pressure (CVP) measurements, thereby mitigating catheter-related complications during many surgeries. In conclusion, our innovative device represents a significant advancement in PVP monitoring during liver transplantation, with comprehensive validation from principle exploration to successful animal experiments. We anticipate that this groundbreaking PVPMD will attract the attention of researchers and clinicians, propelling the noninvasive measurement of PVP or other venous/arterial pressures into a new era of clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1007
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • liver transplantation
  • non-puncture PVP measuring device
  • portal vein pressure
  • swine


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