Development and efficacy of lateral flow point-of-care testing devices for rapid and mass covid-19 diagnosis by the detections of sars-cov-2 antigen and anti-sars-cov-2 antibodies

Wen Yeh Hsieh, Cheng Han Lin, Tzu Ching Lin, Chao Hsu Lin, Hui Fang Chang, Chin Hung Tsai, Hsi Tien Wu, Chih Sheng Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2020–2021. COVID-19 is becoming one of the most fatal pandemics in history and brings a huge challenge to the global healthcare system. Opportune detection, confinement, and early treatment of infected cases present the first step in combating COVID-19. Diagnosis via viral nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) is frequently employed and considered the standard procedure. However, with an increasing urge for point-of-care tests, rapid and cheaper immunoassays are widely utilized, such as lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), which can be used for rapid, early, and large-scale detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this narrative review, the principle and technique of LFIA applied in COVID-19 antigen and antibody detection are introduced. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the commercial LFIA tests are outlined and compared. Generally, LFIA antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 are less sensitive than viral NAATs, the “gold standard” for clinical COVID-19 diagnosis. However, antigen tests can be used for rapid and mass testing in high-risk congregate housing to quickly identify people with COVID-19, implementing infection prevention and control measures, thus preventing transmission. LFIA anti- SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests, IgM and/or IgG, known as serology tests, are used for identification if a person has previously been exposed to the virus or vaccine immunization. Notably, advanced techniques, such as LFT-based CRISPR-Cas9 and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), have added new dimensions to the COVID-19 diagnosis and are also discussed in this review.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1760
JournalDiagnostics
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Antibodies
  • Antig-n
  • COVID-19
  • Lateral flow immunoassay
  • Lateral flow test
  • SARS-CoV-2

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