Determinants of residential greenness and its association with prostate cancer risk: A case-control study in Singapore

Yueh Jia Lee, Wei Qi Loh, Trung Kien Dang, Cecilia Woon Chien Teng, Wen Chi Pan, Chih Da Wu, Sin Eng Chia, Wei Jie Seow*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Exposure to greenness has been shown to be beneficial to health, but few studies have examined the association between residential greenness and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Our main objectives were to identify the determinants of residential greenness, and to investigate if residential greenness was associated with PCa risk in Singapore. Methods: The hospital-based case-control study was conducted between April 2007 and May 2009. The Singapore Prostate Cancer Study (SPCS) comprised 240 prostate cancer cases and 268 controls, whose demographics and residential address were collected using questionnaires. Residential greenness was measured by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) around the participants’ homes using a buffer size of 1 km. Determinants of NDVI were identified using a multivariable linear regression model. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of associations between NDVI and PCa risk, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Having a BMI within the second quartile, as compared to the lowest quartile, was associated with higher levels of NDVI (β-coefficient = 0.263; 95% CI = 0.040–0.485) after adjusting for covariates. Additionally, being widowed or separated, as compared to being married, was associated with lower levels of NDVI (β-coefficient = −0.393; 95% CI = −0.723, −0.063). An interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI was positively associated with prostate cancer risk OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.02–2.07). Stratified analysis by tumour grade and stage showed that higher NDVI was associated with higher risk of low grade PCa. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that residential greenness was associated with higher risk of PCa in Singapore. Future studies on the quality and type of green spaces, as well as other factors of residential greenness, in association with PCa risk should be conducted to better understand this relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116903
JournalEnvironmental Research
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2023


  • Case-control study
  • Environmental epidemiology
  • NDVI
  • Prostate cancer
  • Residential greenness


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