Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be applied in biosensors using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Based on this technique, we have established a sensitive and efficient biosensing method by modifying a peptide-probe onto AuNPs to detect proteinase enzyme activity in this study. This biosensing method was designed for chymase activity detection and applied in kidney disease diagnosis. In this study, 16 nm-AuNPs were used to construct the AuNPs-based fluorescence peptide probe (named AuNPs-peptide probe) for chymase activity determination. The peptide sequence is FITC-Acp-DRVYIHPFHLDDDDDC, which comprises a fluorophore at the N-terminal end, an enzyme (chymase) substrate (DRVYIHPFHL), a spacer (DDDDD) and cysteine (C) to conjugate to AuNPs surface. When the enzyme catalyzes the substrate sequence, the fluorophore drifts away from AuNPs and the fluorescence emitting signal can be excited at 495 nm and detected at 515 nm. The results indicate that the time required for the AuNPs-peptide probe for activity detection of chymase was only 15 min, and a linear correlation from 10 to 100 ng mL-1 of chymase was acquired. The chymase reaction would be significantly inhibited by addition of specific chymase inhibitor chymostatin. The AuNPs-peptide probe was tested for the detection of high concentrations of trypsin and chymotrypsin, but only minor emitted fluorescence intensity was detected. According to these results, sensitivity and specificity of the AuNPs-peptide probe for chymase detection have been confirmed. AuNPs-peptide probe was successfully used for the detection of renal chymase activity; and the results indicate the pathogenically increased chymase activity in kidney tissue of nephropathic mice from aristolochic acid I treatment.