Design Consideration, Numerical and Experimental Analyses of Mode-Division-Multiplexed (MDM) Silicon Photonics Integrated Circuit with Sharp Bends

Pin Cheng Kuo, Chi Wai Chow*, Yuan Zeng Lin, Wahyu Hendra Gunawan, Tun Yao Hung, Yin He Jian, Guan Hong Chen, Ching Wei Peng, Yang Liu, Chien Hung Yeh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Due to the popularity of different high bandwidth applications, it is becoming increasingly difficult to satisfy the huge data capacity requirements, since the traditional electrical interconnects suffer significantly from limited bandwidth and huge power consumption. Silicon photonics (SiPh) is one of the important technologies for increasing interconnect capacity and decreasing power consumption. Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) allows signals to be transmitted simultaneously, at different modes, in a single waveguide. Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) can also be utilized to further increase the optical interconnect capacity. In SiPh integrated circuits, waveguide bends are usually inevitable. However, for an MDM system with a multimode bus waveguide, the modal fields will become asymmetric when the waveguide bend is sharp. This will introduce inter-mode coupling and inter-mode crosstalk. One simple approach to achieve sharp bends in multimode bus waveguide is to use a Euler curve. Although it has been reported in the literature that sharp bends based on a Euler curve allow high performance and low inter-mode crosstalk multimode transmissions, we discover, by simulation and experiment, that the transmission performance between two Euler bends is length dependent, particularly when the bends are sharp. We investigate the length dependency of the straight multimode bus waveguide between two Euler bends. High transmission performance can be achieved by a proper design of the waveguide length, width, and bend radius. By using the optimized MDM bus waveguide length with sharp Euler bends, proof-of-concept NOMA-OFDM experimental transmissions, supporting two MDM modes and two NOMA users, are performed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2965
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2023


  • Euler bend
  • mode-division multiplexing (MDM)
  • non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)
  • optical interconnect
  • orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM)
  • silicon photonics (SiPh)


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