Cumulative risk assessment for plasticizer-contaminated food using the hazard index approach

J. W. Chang, B. R. Yan, M. H. Chang, S. H. Tseng, Y. M. Kao, J. C. Chen, C. C. Lee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Phthalates strongly and adversely affect reproduction, development and liver function. We did a cumulative risk assessment for simultaneous exposure to nine phthalates using the hazard index (HI) and the levels of nine phthalates in 1200 foodstuff samples. DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) present the highest level (mean: 0.443 mg/kg) in 1200 samples, and the highest average daily dose (ADD) was found in DEHP, ΣDBP(i + n) (the sum of dibutyl phthalate [DBP] isomers [DnBP + DiBP]) posed the highest risk potential of all the phthalates. In seven phthalates, the 95th percentiles of the ADDs for ΣDBP(i + n) in 0-6-yr-old children accounted for 91% (79-107%) of the tolerable daily intake, and the 95th percentiles of the HIs for the anti-androgenic effects of five phthalates in 0-3-yr-old children and 4-6-yr-old girls were >1. We conclude that the health of younger Taiwanese may be adversely affected by overexposure of phthalate-contaminated foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-84
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
StatePublished - Jun 2014


  • Average daily dose
  • Cumulative risk assessment
  • Hazard index
  • Phthalate esters
  • Plasticizer-contaminated food


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