Cumulative Dietary Risk Assessment of Benzophenone-Type Photoinitiators from Packaged Foodstuffs

Mei Lien Chen, Chih Hsien Chen, Yu Fang Huang, Hsin Chang Chen, Jung Wei Chang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Photoinitiators used in ultraviolet-cured ink may migrate from food packaging materials into food products. Therefore, we conducted a dietary risk assessment of exposure to benzophenone (BP)-type photoinitiators by quantifying and reducing uncertainties associated with the risk characterization. A total of 362 food packaging samples including 180 cereals, 136 fruit and vegetable juices, and 46 milk samples were subjected to fast pesticides extraction to determine photoinitiator residues. The average daily dose (ADD) of BP was the highest in the age group of zero to three years, with a P97.5 ADD of 2.56 × 10−4 mg/kg bw/day. The ADD of 2-hydroxybenzophenone (2-OHBP) was the highest in the age group of three to six years, with a P97.5 UB ADD of 3.52 × 10−5 mg/kg bw/day. The estimated UB P97.5 ADD for each age group was below the toxicological concern threshold of 0.0015 mg/kg bw/day. The cumulative toxicity of all BPs, evaluated using the MOET value, was at an acceptable level. Although the MOET value of BPs was above the safety limit in the foodstuffs studied herein, this result may be different if Taiwan were to follow regulation guidelines for BP-type photoinitiators based on the specific migration limit for the unmeasured BP residues in other foodstuffs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number152
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Average daily dose
  • Dietary risk
  • FaPEx
  • Photoinitiators
  • Ultraviolet-cured ink


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