Cu-Based Thermocompression Bonding and Cu/Dielectric Hybrid Bonding for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits (3D ICs) Application

Yuan Chiu Huang, Yu Xian Lin, Chien Kang Hsiung, Tzu Heng Hung, Kuan Neng Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Advanced packaging technology has become more and more important in the semiconductor industry because of the benefits of higher I/O density compared to conventional soldering technology. In advanced packaging technology, copper–copper (Cu-Cu) bonding has become the preferred choice due to its excellent electrical and thermal properties. However, one of the major challenges of Cu-Cu bonding is the high thermal budget of the bonding process caused by Cu oxidation, which can result in wafer warpage and other back-end-of-line process issues in some cases. Thus, for specific applications, reducing the thermal budget and preventing Cu oxidation are important considerations in low-temperature hybrid bonding processes. This paper first reviews the advancements in low-temperature Cu-based bonding technologies for advanced packaging. Various low-temperature Cu-Cu bonding techniques such as surface pretreatment, surface activation, structure modification, and orientation control have been proposed and investigated. To overcome coplanarity issues of Cu pillars and insufficient gaps for filling, low-temperature Cu-Cu bonding used, but it is still challenging in fine-pitch applications. Therefore, low-temperature Cu/SiO2, Cu/SiCN, and Cu/polymer hybrid bonding have been developed for advanced packaging applications. Furthermore, we present a novel hybrid bonding scheme for metal/polymer interfaces that achieves good flatness and an excellent bonding interface without the need for the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2490
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • 3D ICs
  • advanced packaging
  • Cu-Cu bonding
  • hybrid bonding
  • low-temperature bonding


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