COVID-19 associated mold infections: Review of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis and mucormycosis

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COVID-19-associated mold infection (CAMI) is defined as development of mold infections in COVID-19 patients. Co-pathogenesis of viral and fungal infections include the disruption of tissue barrier following SARS CoV-2 infection with the damage in the alveolar space, respiratory epithelium and endothelium injury and overwhelming inflammation and immune dysregulation during severe COVID-19. Other predisposing risk factors permissive to fungal infections during COVID-19 include the administration of immune modulators such as corticosteroids and IL-6 antagonist. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) and COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is increasingly reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. CAPA usually developed within the first month of COVID infection, and CAM frequently arose 10–15 days post diagnosis of COVID-19. Diagnosis is challenging and often indistinguishable during the cytokine storm in COVID-19, and several diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Development of CAPA and CAM is associated with a high mortality despiteappropriate anti-mold therapy. Both isavuconazole and amphotericin B can be used for treatment of CAPA and CAM; voriconazole is the primary agent for CAPA and posaconazole is an alternative for CAM. Aggressive surgery is recommended for CAM to improve patient survival. A high index of suspicion and timely and appropriate treatment is crucial to improve patient outcome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Aspergillosis
  • CAM
  • CAPA
  • COVID-19
  • Mucormycosis


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