Purpose To determine the correlation between higher-order aberrations (HOAs) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) recovery speed after spectacles treatment using iDesign measurements in refractive amblyopic children. Methods This is a prospective case series. Children aged from 3 to 7 years with refractive amblyopia (Landolt C equivalent < 0.8) were recruited. All participants were followed for at least 6 months after full correction of the refraction error by spectacles. The HOAs were measured using iDesign before and after cycloplegia at first visit and at 3-month intervals. Then correlation between BCVA recovery after treatment for 6 months and HOAs was determined. Results We analyzed 24 eyes of 12 children (mean age, 4.5 years). Baseline mean BCVA was logarithm of minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.335 (Landolt C equivalent 0.46), which improved to logMAR 0.193 (Landolt C equivalent 0.64) after treatment with full-correction spectacles for 6 months. The amblyopic eye BCVA recovery was negatively correlated with tetrafoil with/without cycloplegia (P = 0.006 and 0.022, respectively) and trefoil with cycloplegia (P = 0.049). Conclusions trefoil and tetrafoil measured with iDesign negatively correlates with the BCVA recovery speed of refractive amblyopic eyes after spectacles treatment in this pilot study. The current study results may aid in further investigation for diagnosis and treatment of refractory refractive and idiopathic amblyopia.