Coordinate regulation of energy transduction modules in Halobacterium sp. analyzed by a global systems approach

Nitin S. Baliga*, Min Pan, Young Ah Goo, Eugene C. Yi, David R. Goodlett, Krassen Dimitrov, Paul Shannon, Ruedi Aebersold, Wailap Victor Ng, Leroy Hood

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

117 Scopus citations


The extremely halophilic archaeon Halobacterium NRC-1 can switch from aerobic energy production (energy from organic compounds) to anaerobic phototrophy (energy from light) by induction of purple membrane biogenesis. The purple membrane is made up of multiple copies of a 1:1 complex of bacterioopsin (Bop) and retinal called bacteriorhodopsin that functions as a light-driven proton pump. A light- and redox-sensing transcription regulator, Bat, regulates critical genes encoding the biogenesis of the purple membrane. To better understand the regulatory network underlying this physiological state, we report a systems approach using global mRNA and protein analyses of four strains of Halobacterium sp.: the wild-type, NRC-1; and three genetically perturbed strains: S9 (bat+), a purple membrane overproducer, and two purple membrane deficient strains, SD23 (a bop knockout) and SD20 (a bat knockout). The integrated DNA microarray and proteomic data reveal the coordinated coregulation of several interconnected biochemical pathways for phototrophy: isoprenoid synthesis, carotenoid synthesis, and bacteriorhodopsin assembly. In phototrophy, the second major biomodule for ATP production, arginine fermentation, is repressed. The primary systems level insight provided by this study is that two major energy production pathways in Halobacterium sp., phototrophy and arginine fermentation, are inversely regulated, presumably to achieve a balance in ATP production under anaerobic conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14913-14918
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number23
StatePublished - 12 Nov 2002


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