Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis

Su Jung Chen, Tze Fan Chao, Yenn Jiang Lin, Li Wei Lo, Yu Feng Hu, Ta Chuan Tuan, Tsui Lieh Hsu, Wen Chung Yu, Hsin Bang Leu, Shih Lin Chang*, Shih Ann Chen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19. 2°C and 27. 6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32. 7% versus 12. 5%, p = 0. 017) and from NHIRD (10. 4% versus 4. 6%, p = 0. 019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44. 2% versus 22. 9%, p = 0. 025) and D-dimer level (5. 5 ± 3. 8 versus 2. 4 ± 1. 8 μg/ml, p = 0. 017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)973-981
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Biometeorology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012


  • Infective endocarditis
  • Temperature
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram


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