Constrained wavelet tree quantization for image watermarking

Min-Jen Tsai*, Chen Long Lin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper investigates the operations of the wavelet tree based quantization and proposes a constrained wavelet tree quantization for image watermarking. The wavelet coefficients of the cover image are grouped into super trees for watermark embedding where quantization is performed. The watermark bits are extracted based on a modulus approach and the minimum mean comparison of the super tree coefficients efficiently distinguishes which super tree is quantized. Without the needs of the requantization index at the decoder, the constrained quantization of the super trees reduces the uncertainty of the maximum likelihood detection. Therefore, the robustness of the proposed scheme can be effectively improved. This study has performed intensive comparison for the proposed scheme with the non-constrained tree quantization method under various geometric and nongeometric attacks. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed technique yields better performance with higher degree of robustness.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2007 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC'07
Number of pages5
StatePublished - 2007
Event2007 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC'07 - Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
Duration: 24 Jun 200728 Jun 2007

Publication series

NameIEEE International Conference on Communications
ISSN (Print)0536-1486


Conference2007 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC'07
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow, Scotland


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